Filipino and American soldiers. Image Source: Bentley Image Bank, Harry H. Bandholtz Papers, Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan.

Working Definition:

A term used by some Americans to describe Filipino nationalists and revolutionaries whom they fought during the Philippine-American War. Care should be taken by collections managers to properly historicize this term and not simply replicate the language used by Americans should this term be included in findings aids and collections guides.

Related Terms:

Suggestions for Further Reading:

Paul A. Kramer, The Blood of Government: Race, Empire, the United States, and the Philippines (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006); Vicente L. Rafael, White Love and Other Events in Filipino History (Durham: Duke University Press, 2000); Daniel Immerwahr, How to Hide an Empire: A History of the Greater United States. (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2019); “The Philippines and the University of Michigan, 1870-1935: Filipinos During the War”