Gago, Googoo, Gugu,

Working Definition:

These terms were used by American soldiers during the Philippine-American War to describe the language and peoples of the Philippines whom they encountered. The terms were racialized and used as pejoratives in the Philippines and in letters home. The terms do not likely appear in finding aids and collections guides at U-M, but may be encountered by researchers when using collections. If discovered by archivists or collections stewards, it is recommended that a content warning be placed in the finding aids and collections guides in which the term in located.

Related Terms:

Suggestions for Further Reading:

Paul A. Kramer, The Blood of Government: Race, Empire, the United States, and the Philippines (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006)